During the week of the Iteration assignment, I opted participating in the Make-a-Thon.
My team was named “MOVI” and the goal was to design a protective guard for a prosthetic leg. Prosthetic legs are very sophisticated and are extremely valuable. Yet those products are worn at the part of our body with the most movement and thus are exposed to scratches, impact, and lots more other threats in daily life. The reference model, C-leg, cost more than $100K. It has been a pain point among users, especially the active ones. To make the matter worse, people wearing only one of these are told to fell on the prosthetic side when imbalanced. Because, falling to the other side will make it rather difficult, if not impossible, to get up by themselves.
There are some prosthetic leg covers in the market. But most of them are like the same model: a dull thick bulky black cushion covers every section of the prosthetic leg. This leads to a problem, apart from the aesthetics, the back of the prosthetic knee is an area filled with delicate moving parts. The bulky protective sleeve covers that area and makes it very difficult to bend the knee.
Thus we got the needs of users:
easy for putting it on-and-off
protection against scratches
cushioning of physical impact (mostly in case of a fell)
not blocking knee flex
Our team started the design with a 3D scanning of the prosthetic leg. The model was then printed using three 3D printers and glued together.
For the prototype, the team proposed a solution combining a hinge in the front and straps in the back for the top need. The user reported that the phase 1 prototype lacks coverage of the leg. So we created the phase 2 prototype, just to specify the max area of protection that is necessary, considering need 2, 3 and 4. Therefore, we’ve combined the two prototype together and came up with the final design.
The final design adopted the hinge-straps design and used a two-layer solution for protection and aesthetic needs. A hard shell with patterns is put on the outside. In the future, users should be able to customize and switch the shell for their taste or even the mood at the moment. Two pieces of cushions are fixed inside of the shell. Each cushion used a heavy fabric cover with foam pads inside. To help further protect the user, we’ve inserted a layer of sheet metal between two layers of foam pads inside the cushion. Two extra cushion pads are added to the top for knee protection. Two straps go through holes on the shell. We fixed velcro strips onto the straps.
Our team was well-paced during the make-a-thon, and each step was well executed throughout the event. After rounds of presentations and expert review, our team got the championship of the competition.
During the event, I helped in the 3D printing post-process, and led the efforts in the fabric department. Cleaning and gluing the PLA parts were rather easy with the training in class. But I’ve got quite some challenge in the sewing part. I was quite confident before going into it. It was not long before I recognized the challenge. The cushion pad was of an irregular shape, with five corners of varied angles. And there was a significant thickness. For solving this problem, I design the two piece of fabric of different sizes, with all the side panels included in the front piece. While sewing the corners, Duncan gave me some useful tips. Cutting off some fabric inside the corner is key to a smooth outside. I’ve got some of them right, some of them not so.
Just when I felt a relief finished sewing the cushions, there came the straps. “It’s just an extended square, not so different from the little pouch we’ve done in class!” That thought was so wrong. The fact that we’ve chosen a waterproof rubber coated fabric and a very thin strap width made the task very challenging. Flipping the strap inside out was not far from a mission impossible. It was a combination of stick and brutal force and dedication that helped me finished those two straps.
I am very happy about the results, and the fact that our team has developed something useful in real life.
is my final project for this course. It is a voice-controlled robot that can move in all directions on the ground.
The robot integrated a Raspberry Pi (as the master for control), an Arduino (as the slave managing servo actions), and a mechanical base with two panels of “legs”. An offline speech recognition module called “Snips” is used for the project. A generated Snips assistant was configured and installed onto the Pi. Then a Python script was coded and set as a native service on the Pi. The script handles internal messages from the Snips assistant and parses them for robot command. The command will be sent to the Arduino using serial communication (USB A male to B male cable). The Arduino will then call servo functions based on the message. Currently, the robot can react to five commands: forward, backward, turn left, turn right, and stop.
The mechanical base was designed using Klann’s Linkage. It has the advantage of smooth progression and heavy load lifting, from the “D” shaped pattern from its legs. The robot was based on two panels of such linkage, each panel has two sets of legs. The robot can move forward or backward when the panels are all moving in the same direction. And it can make turns when the two panels move in different directions, similar to that of a tank.
Reinforced Frame Design
Spacer and Gear Prints
Laser Cut Parts
Parts for One Set of Legs
Legs Pre-assemble Back
Challenge 1: Power Solution
Since I had very limited knowledge of power supply of robots, I decided to take this part of the project first. And it’s proved to be a wise decision.
Each of the servos has a stall current of 1.5 Amps at 6.0 V. The Arduino can be powered with a variety of options. The Pi needs stable 5V and 1.5 to 2.0 Amps for reliable performance. I was thinking a high throughput power bank would be enough for all of these. But after putting everything into a test. It was pretty obvious that even a 15W dual USB output power bank won’t be enough. Then I turned to the idea of auxiliary power supply — using the power bank for the Pi and Arduino (board only), and one to two battery packs of 4x AA batteries for the servos. In theory, two battery packs are needed in a parallel setup, since the AA batteries have a reference current of 1.5 Amps. But in testing, I found that one would be enough for the robot to move. Since the load and frictions were not terribly enormous.
Challenge 2: Assembly
Proving the movement and leg patterns in software was one thing. But putting everything together and get a useable assembly is another story. With all the printing relief, and those many layers of acrylic parts, and screws, and spacers, I was not very successful in my first attempt. Quite some time were spent on sanding and drilling, reassembling and testing of the linkage. Even getting the screws was a challenge. Because, I used 4mm holes in the design, which would fit M3 screws smoothly. But none of the local stores has enough metric sized screws and nuts for me. So I spent many more hours switching everything to #6-32 screws (from the Imperial size chart).
Legs Panel Testing
In multiple layered mechanical linkage project, extra (I mean, quite a lot extra), precautions should be paid to load balancing, stability, and relief (or spatial allowance). With all the consumer level machines of laser cutting and 3D printing, and all those environmental variations going around, many measurements could go one way or another. And the gears will tilt if the loads are not balanced. There is still a lot to improve of my design. The frame is not stable enough for holding the body. The body design should have put those heavy batteries closer to the center of support. And the gear section needs a redesign, on a certain level, for a stable and smooth power progression. But I did have learned a good deal of lessons from this project.
I made an art mobile that can be used to lit the room and showcase my photos. I often light my room at night only with Christmas lights and I wanted to make something that incorporates Christmas lights and decoration. I wanted to make something that is artistically aesthetic and also display my photos. I’m really proud of the photography/photoshop skills that I developed for my project. This is some skills that I can use it after this class for various occasions. I’m proud of my cloud room decoration overall. It looks artistic and useful in terms of displaying my photos. A major challenge I faced was the Arduino part of the project that I was initially going to include. I wanted to make the photos drip down out of the “cloud” (paper lanterns), but I couldn’t figure out a way to make that happen. Since this piece of decoration is meant to be hanging from the ceiling, it was strong enough to support multiple Arduinos inside the “clouds”.
I hot glued pieces of cotton onto the paper lanterns. This process took a while because I wanted to make fluffy clouds that look realistic.
This is the inkspace design for the acrylic stars I made
This is my final product. I wish my blue lighting got delivered on time. I also I could showcase this during the final presentation in a dark room so I can show the full effect.
Before the photoshop
After the photoshop
Learning Goal 1: I want to use Arduino to display my photos more emotionally appealing by making the photos draping down in a timed matter.
My number one learning goal was to use Arduino. It’s something that I didn’t really enjoy using back when we learned how to make pom bots. I wanted to challenge myself by using Arduino. I thought it would add a cool effect to my project too. However, it was difficult to make it happen. The first problem was that the Arduino motors weren’t moving in a way I wanted. I imagined my photos all folded into one and drapes down out of the “cloud”. Especially the LED lights being inside, it was not only fire hazard to multiple cords inside, but the clouds also weren’t’ strong enough to have something inside. I didn’t want to take a risk of ruining my whole project by using the Arduino. I talked to my classmates after I finished making it. They suggested some potential ideas on how to use Arduino. It’s something I never thought of and I will definitely consider using them in the future. I failed to meet this goal. I learned that sometimes it’s the solutions to your problems are much closer than you think. I could have talked to my classmates in the beginning process about my challenge. I think the key part of being a maker in the makerspace community is utilizing all your resources. This is the most precious thing I learned. I had a great chance to talk to my classmates.
Learning Goal 2: I will spread out my tasks throughout the week to prevent myself from procrastinating.
Most of my projects were done last minute because it was difficult for me to come to the fab lab in the evening during weekdays due to my other commitments. However, I knew I didn’t want to push my final project to the last minute. I set tasks for each week so I don’t do everything at once. Since I had to learn how to take photos with a DSLR camera, I watched tutorial videos every night in the first week. I had to ask my friends who are experts in photography in my own time to learn all the little things (aperture, shutter speed, appropriate light settings, etc). It rained so many days so I had to really look out for good weather to take pictures. I think I succeed in not doing everything last minute. I had all my photos taken and photoshopped done in advance. However, I had to make my clouds a little late because all the materials came late. I didn’t’ want to work on my project on the day of the presentation. I had to come in for a final touch. Due to this, I didn’t fully meet my goal number 2.
Learning Goal 3: I want to push myself to make something that can make me happy even if I fail because I learned so much from the production of it.
I wanted to challenge myself from using tools that I’m not really good at. However, I also didn’t want to push myself to do something that I wouldn’t enjoy. They are so contradicting to each other that I had to do something that met two goals in the middle which was using the tool that I’m still comfortable at using but not really an expert at. I was very bummed after giving up on using Arduino. I decided to use laser cutting. I wasn’t really confident at doing the laser cutting. I got a new idea at the last minute to add shiny stars to make the clouds look more like hanging in the sky. So I designed the shiny stars and laser cut using the universal. It was my first time that I did the whole process without any problems. I felt like I can even help other people who don’t know how to use it. It was an amazing feeling. I’m actually really happy with my shining stars (mirror acrylic) because it adds so many artistic values to my final piece.
I think I have never felt this insecure as a student in a class before INFO 490. I was the slowest learner in my lab section. I always asked the most number of questions. I was the last one to understand the same tasks in my class. I felt like my project was never as cool as another person’s. It was a constant feeling of failure and insecurity. It took me a while to tell myself that I’m good at certain things. I think I have really cool ideas. I may be a slow learner to learn how to use tools to make my imagination come true. But I had the creativity and also desire to create something original. This class taught me how everything we make in this class can’t be compared to each other. There is no such thing as “mine is cooler than yours”. I definitely felt sad when the Professor asked why I didn’t execute certain things. He didn’t know as an audience that I already have attempted to make those but I just failed to execute them. It was a very meaningful learning experience for me to understand the interaction and the silent communication that happens between the artist and the audience. I don’t think I’m an expert at any tools we learned in this class. I still have more experience with the tools we have used. However, I think I learned what makerspace community is. I can’t thank enough people who never got annoyed from me asking so many questions and were always willing to help me even if they were busy.
Although I was never happy about anything I made for this class, I feel proud as I’m writing this post. I didn’t even know that I was going to be doing all this when I registered for this class. I’m proud of being an original maker. That means, I always challenged myself to be original with my creativity. This is why I consider myself a maker. I created something out of my imagination. I’m not sure if I will put myself to create something tangible like the stuff we make in the fab lab. I will definitely use the skills I learned in everyday life. I think even my cooking skills make me a maker. I’m writing this blog as a person who has basic skills. However, I’m definitely more curious and passionate about creating something after this class. I think I have tough love for this class because there were definitely moments where I felt like a failure. I felt uncomfortable and intimidated to ask questions from time to time. However, I made good friends from this class and met so many good people!! I honestly wish I had more chance to be friends with my classmates. They are so freaking cool. I hope I remember to utilize my resources and ask as many questions as needed in many situations so I can execute my imagination fully and challenge myself.
For my copper tape project I created a mothers day card. I wanted to include a silhouette of our family so I spent most of my time creating and editing my pictures on Inkscape.
edited the picture on the right to be the left picture to resemble my family (my mom is in the middle)
edited the words to connect the letters using the node tool
Using the silhouette as my inspiration as to wear to place my LED, I could tell that it was difficult to see that my mom was the second from the left so I made the LED light her up from the background and used word “mom” to be the switch for the circuit.
I hope she likes her card, I had a lot of fun using the silhouette cutter and editing the pictures on Inkscape.
In the dark (showing the light emphasizing my mom in the picture)
For the final project I chose to make a skirt for my mom. I chose to use linen for skirt so it was breathable in the summer, and I chose linen over cotton just so I wouldn’t have to add a slip layer if because most of the cotton fabrics were see through.
I found a tutorial for a half circle skirt and followed it accordingly so I wouldn’t buy too much fabric as I had done for my iteration project and wouldn’t be “winging it”.
I first started with cutting out my fabric. Since the measurements were very exact (math and radii were involved) and the skirt was very long I used measuring tape and chalk in a way I never thought I would.
strategy to make a circle (tape chalk to the edge of the measuring tape so I could keep track of the radius)
Afterwards I started the sewing process. This was a bad idea because when it came time to print the design on my fabric, I had to wait for the paint to dry before flipping my skirt around and print on the backside rather than just print on the separate pieces and then sew them together.
stamping tool made from laser cut wood and clear acrylic plastic for handles
backing I used underneath the fabric so the stamp could press down
after stamping the top half of the skirt
My original plan was to have embroidered flowers on the bottom of the skirt but the spacing of the prints was so close together that I decided that big embroidery would just crowd the skirt and make it too busy. My original idea was also to include buttons but I also didn’t end up doing this because of the same reason. The skirt looked very incomplete without anything so I wanted to do a border along the edge because I knew it wouldn’t disrupt the flow of the skirt or make it look too busy and unwearable.
Chose to do a satin stitch without the embroidery machine
In this project I learned how to do a hidden hem with the blind stitch foot but because I was dumb I didn’t realized that my white bobbin thread was showing on the front of the skirt so I tried to cover it with the satin stitch I used for the border but I couldn’t make the width of the stitch smaller to cover the hidden stitch as the fabric kept getting caught in the machine.
By the end of this project I learned so many new skills and learned to make a clean finished product without and compromises to quality. I first started out this semester with a jean skirt that I will never wear because I’m too afraid it’ll rip every time I sit down. Now I’ve made a skirt I’m confident my mom can do whatever she wants in.
unfinished edges from first sewing project
By following the tutorial and applying all the skills I learned from my iteration project and the new techniques I learned from my TA, Duncan, I was able to create a something I would proudly say I made and give my mom. Working with a plan and a design in my head and on a schedule, I made something that I think is very high quality.
I’m very proud of my finished project “Air B & B”. From inspiration to completion I really put my heart into this project, and I hope that it is as successful out in the garden as it can be! For my final project of INFO 490, I decided to build an insect hotel. An insect hotel, also known as a “bug house” or “bug hotel” or “insect house” is a structure, usually box-like that provides shelter to various bugs. It’s made of materials that promote nesting, and it’s a great addition to any garden not only so that you have more pollinators enriching your plants, but also so that the insect populations can flourish.
The idea for this project came to me during Earth week. I had been thinking a lot about sustainability and what it means to be a friend of the planet. It’s not enough to simply do less harm, we’re at a point where we really need to take action to reverse some of the detrimental practices that humans have undertook. I was also inspired by the story of the bees surviving the Notre Dame fire.
A really brief recap of the steps I took is that I used various materials to create a box, Inkscape to make a sign, and various materials to fill the insect house. Some challenges that I ran into were not accounting for the time it takes wood glue to dry, not expecting the nail gun to run out of battery and running out of recycled paper and cardboard for reeds. I’m most proud of the fact that I used almost every tool in the woodshop. I came in with zero experience, and very intimidated but with Brandon’s help I feel like I really conquered some fears.
For this project, I decided to challenge myself in two very different ways. For the first, I wanted to use only recycled and reclaimed materials and for the second, I wanted to challenge myself to stick to a schedule that gives me more than enough time to complete the project.
I chose to use only recycled and reclaimed materials to continue the theme of sustainability. I recycle at my apartment, but I still feel like those materials can be given a second life before being recycled. Collecting paper and cardboard materials made me more conscious of how much waste my roommate and I produce every day. Someone recently shared a quote with me that said, “what is measured can be improved” and taking note of how much paper I use has definitely helped me reduce my paper consumption. I also visited the Urbana Landscaping Waste Reclamation facility for many of the logs and branches used in this project. The pine cones are old Christmas decorations (unvarnished), the reeds consist of toilet paper rolls, an old tiki torch, pasta boxes, and even a parking ticket, and even the fake flowers are being given a second life. To be fair, the glue, tape, and laser cut sign are all new products, but I couldn’t think of an alternative that would be as secure.
The scheduling challenge was definitely harder. There were a few hiccups along the road that made me redo my schedule completely. I realized that it’s better to get a lot done in the beginning, than spread it out over time. I didn’t account for the time it would take the glue to dry, so I initially had sanding and making the shelf on the same day. I also wasn’t expecting the nail gun to run out of battery after 4 nails, and the Fab Lab to not have the charger. I also didn’t account for fatigue. Using a lot of the tools involved more manual labor than I thought. The hand drill required a lot of strength, and the tool I used to cut the backing was so powerful it made my hands feel numb. I made enough reeds to be satisfied at this time, but I think in the future I will improve the insect hotel by adding more. I initially had more time for “reed making” specifically in my schedule, but other things chipped away at the time, and redundant tasks should be more spread out.
The most significant thing I’ve learned over the course of these assignments is to give yourself like 4 to 5 times the amount of time that you think a project will take. I need to account for not only the physical process but the mental process as well. I didn’t write about it as much in the write-ups as I could, but some of these projects took a lot mentally and emotionally. I was so stressed and fed-up with the 3d printing assignment that when the BIF lab employee broke the product it took me 3+ hours to make, I almost cried in class. The sewing/embroidery assignment was also a nightmare because I had 99% of my embroidery done when the machine somehow started printing my design over itself. I think anything involving creating is really heavily tied to the creator’s emotions, so that when you make something nice you feel really proud and accomplished. But when something goes wrong, it’s hard to not think of yourself as a failure. Or at least that’s how I take it!
But all-in-all I feel much better coming out of the class and having tons more skills under my belt. I’m willing to try some methods again, although scary, and I feel confident enough to teach others some of the things that I’ve learned. I definitely want to try and find a makerspace near me when I return home this summer. I think they’re amazing institutions that provide people with the opportunity to learn new skills, especially without much investment. I personally can’t afford a laser printer or an embroidery machine, and the Fab Lab has made that financial barrier nonexistent. I learned so much and had a great time doing it. I’m really grateful for the Champaign-Urbana Community Fab Lab, and I hope that so many others are able to have this experience in the future.
Subtitle: this is all just for me, really. Also I’m writing this on a plane on limited sleep so I apologize if it’s a little unclear at points.
Question 1: (Sorry I know this wasn’t supposed to be a full write up but I ended up explaining a lot of it anyway).
My final project was, in a few words: Rings Made Out Of Multiple Materials That I Can Make Myself With Some Level of Customization.
These are the final products that are the rings!
And, because the entire project ended up a little more resin-centric than expected, the rings + some other fun side things I made with leftover resin (I’m not the best at approximating volumes.)
The process to get to the end was pretty winding. I didn’t start out with the clearest idea of what I wanted to do, beyond the most basic idea. I picked up and abandoned multiple methods of making rings once I learned what they did- and what they were and weren’t well suited for. (Such as the CNC mill). I wound up settling on resin, partly because I’d gotten stumped on the other methods and also because I really liked the idea of suspending whatever I wanted in rings.
Now, in order to make something in resin, you need to have a negative- aka, a mold you can pour into, that will harden into the shape that you want. With resin, either the mold has to be able to flex, or you have to be willing to completely destroy the mold every time you use it. I ended up settling on a rubber pour-over mold, which was pretty fun even if the mixture was getting kind of old and congealed.
(I also made an effort with a wood mold towards the end, but I should’ve used way softer wood for the centres, because I wound up not being able to pop the centers out.)
To get the rubber mold negative, I needed a positive. So I laser cut some wood rings to serve as the positive, and in the process, realized they looked pretty nice on their own. That’s actually where the majority of the rings came from, given that the short timeframe I’d given myself and the 24 hr curing time needed for resin didn’t play super nicely with each other. I’m actually really proud of the wood rings, because they were simple in execution and came down a lot to what I thought looked nice or didn’t look nice, which isn’t something I get to do a lot these days.
The resin rings were fun to make too! I’m really proud of how I ended up managing to incorporate metal; by taking little bits and shavings and using those as the suspended pieces in the ring. It looks pretty cool, and I also like how resourceful it makes me feel. There was more than one resin ring made, but they come out cloudy when you first pop them out of the mold, and I only successfully polished one, which is the one in the majority of the photos.
Not everything was smooth going. The rubber mold mixture was a little difficult to work with given the not-really-liquid state of it, so the molds didn’t come out entirely smooth. I think given a few more tries, I could’ve figured something out to make the edges a bit cleaner. The biggest issue with the resin was the 24 hr curing time; it’s on me, some, for setting myself up with not too much time, but I think I’m also just a little impatient, and 48 hours per each round of rings (combined rubber mold curing + resin curing + about 4-5 hours in lab each time I was working on the rings) is just a little too much. It’s even more if you do things correctly and suspend layer by layer so the suspended material doesn’t sink to the bottom over the curing time. I am just…. Too impatient.
Question 2: I actually fell through on a majority of my initial plans for the new skills. I do plan on coming back to learn to use the lathe at a different point, and I might do the same for the CNC if I have any ideas that might make good use of it. I did brush back up on my Universal laser cutter skills, but not the epilogue. After everything, however, I did learn a lot about resin casting, and some about pourover rubber molds. I’m pretty happy with the depth vs breadth tradeoff here, and can definitely see myself working with resin on personal projects. …Assuming no strict timeline, that is.
In terms of my other goal- I think I achieved it? For this project moreso than others I was driven a lot more by something that I wanted, that I physically wanted to have and fiddle with. As a result, I think I was a lot more content with the result, even if it went off the rails a bit from what I expected, because I still wanted whatever random thing I was going for. Concessions made because of time or unexpected limitations felt less like concessions and more like… an alternate route. I still want to try again on the resin, but I am also genuinely happy with what I have/learned/got out of the experience, more so than I think I was with previous projects.
Question 3: Two big things: Iteration iteration iteration, and the knowledge that it doesn’t hae to come out perfectly on its first iteration, or even whole. Part of the issue is, of course, giving myself the time to iterate, but also to counter my tendency to do The Entire Project At Once Right Now because sometimes I get overexcited and try to actualize everything I’m imagining at once instead of, like, learning to do things in steps. (See: sewable LED, even the resin rings to a small extent). I think that tendency has also stopped me from doing personal projects in the past, because specifically for personal/art projects, I don’t like starting unless I think I can do it well. But, among everything else, this class has hammered it in that sometimes you just need to start, and be willing to let the first prototype be less than ideal. Maybe this is just leftover habits from too much procrastination; either way, the class has been a very, very valuable reminder of why Iteration!!! Is so important.
Question 4: I have a lot more small skills that I really value, now. For stuff like learning how to use certain tools and machines, I always really want to learn, but am very bad at asking people for help. I then try to learn things on my own, but self driven teaching can be hard, especially when its not something that Needs To Be Done. This class was an excellent way for me to get over that first hurdle of just learning how to use the thing, so I can then use those skills however I want.
I’ve always had a particular love for hands on stuff. Most of it was in the 3d realm, with stuff like sculptures or figures/animals made out of pipe cleaners or twists ties or whatever I had on hand. I also have a particular fondness for power tools. I love making things with my hands- that was nothing new, but I think it’s a pasttime I kind of had to put to the wayside in recent years. This class was a good reminder of why I love this kind of stuff so much and also a very compelling incentive to keep it up afterwards. I think I always scounted myself as alittle of a maker, but now I remember that I can still continue to be one, as extremely cheesey as that sounds.
Like, all joking and assignments aside- I really, genuinely loved this class a lot, and the way it was taught. It was an excellent experience and I regret almost none of it.*
*the almost is there to account for the 10 hours spent on copper tape. Curse you, copper tape. I love you, love me back.
For my final project, I was inspired by a pokéball-themed Nintendo Switch cartridge case that I found on YouTube. My initial idea was to make six pokéballs and case/stand based on the recovery machine in pokémon centers. After considering the amount of time needed to complete the project, I cut the number of pokéballs to three, and changed the idea for the case/stand to the incubator that contained the three starter pokémon in the first episode of the anime. I also decided to have one of the pokéballs contain a small Pikachu plush rather than Nintendo Switch games. With that in mind, I needed to decide what pokéballs I would make. I, initially, was going to make one regular pokéball, one master ball, and one unique pokéball that I would design. After discussing my idea with Duncan, it was decided that I would instead design three unique pokéballs. The two pokéballs that would hold Nintendo Switch games would be based on the Overwatch logo and the Smash Ball item from the Super Smash Brothers series. The last pokéball would be based on Pikachu.
I had quite a few challenges in this project. The spring releases weren’t as strong as I had hoped they would be. I had some trouble keeping the buttons positioned so that they could hold the balls closed. I had multiple parts break during assembly, and two parts fail halfway through their prints. I hadn’t anticipated that so many parts would break, so that threw off my schedule for the project. Due to this shift in my schedule, I was only able to paint two of the pokéballs and use a primer on the case/stand. Despite the setbacks, I am very proud of how well the Smash Ball came out. I also feel that the laser print design for the case/stand came out well, considering that it was my first time using Fusion 360.
Overall, I had three learning goals: Improve my time management by making a schedule of what I needed done by a certain time, making more use of the tools at my disposal, and asking for help whenever I was confused. I did accomplish my learning goal of making a schedule for better time management, but I did not account for the possibility of parts failing. Not including the case/stand, I needed to print fifteen separate parts. I began printing on Thursday with a plan of printing six parts that day, four on Friday, and five on Sunday. I created this plan factoring in that on Friday and Sunday I would only need to use 2 printers at once, so that I wouldn’t be preventing others from completing their own projects. The plan seemed realistic, but I did not anticipate that multiple parts would fail. The setbacks caused by the broken parts caused my plan to fly off the rails, snowballing to the point in which I was having the last two parts of one pokéball printing from Monday night to Tuesday morning. Due to this result, I feel that I only partially accomplished my goal. I created a schedule, but I failed to stick to it due to a lack of flexibility in said schedule.
I definitely feel that I made use of the tools at my disposal while working on this project. When I made my 3D Printing and Scanning assignment, I simply imported my scans into Meshmixer, used the analyze tool to fix any errors, plane cut them, and then moved it over to Tinkercad to stitch the scans together. For this project, I actually used different tools such as inflate and flatten in order to morph the pokéball shells into the shape that I desired. I used Fusion 360, a software I had never used before, to design the laser printer file for the case/stand. I used power tools for a project for the first time. I needed to use a drill to widen the holes of the hinge of each pokéball. I actually also had to use a soldering iron and a heat gun for the first time to help secure the buttons into place. I also did foam smithing for the first time, using contact cement to glue foam to the wooden skeleton of the case/stand. I also painted something for the first time since I was about 6 years old, so that was fun. I definitely feel that I accomplished my goal of making better use of the tools at the fab lab.
For my final goal, I made sure to ask questions. Typically, when I feel stuck in a project, I would sit feeling defeated for a while. This time, I made sure to ask questions as soon as I felt that I did not know what to do. One person that I cannot thank enough is Brandon, who helped me with a large portion of my project. He taught me how to use Fusion 360 so I could design the case/stand. He taught me how to use a soldering iron and heat gun, and how to do foam smithing as well. When I was feeling lost after my parts broke, Brandon helped me get back on track by helping me with the case/stand while new parts were printing. I am very thankful for all of the help I received while making this project. If I hadn’t been asking questions as soon as I had, my project would have been in much worse shape.
Over the course of the semester, I feel that I truly did learn something in this class. Before this course, I never really went out of my way to make new things. In this class, I learned how satisfying it is to come up with an idea and bring it into reality. Before this class, I never thought I would ever need to learn how to sew. Surprisingly, I would say that the project I am most proud of is the stuffed animal that I made in the Sewing and Digital Embroidery assignment. I may have gotten frustrated at one point while making it, but overall, I truly enjoyed making it. This class has definitely improved my confidence as a maker.
This class has made me feel different about the very concept of making. Since high school, I have wanted to work in some sort of lab as a chemist, making different products for the company that employs me. Whenever I thought of the word “maker,” I always felt that the term applied to a select few that create inventions that have a lasting impact on the human race. This class has taught me that anyone can be a maker. This class gave me confidence in my ability to make things. It really showed how anyone can make something if they have access to the tools to create.
One of the most important lessons I received in this class is that it’s not the grade that matters; it’s the effort that really counts. I eventually got to a point in which I stopped caring about my grade, and started caring more about the projects themselves. I’ve enjoyed a lot of classes in my four years at this university. This is by far the most fun I’ve had in a class. Thanks to this class, I feel that I will feel more confident when asked to make something.
I integrated a computer into my jacket, so that I could play a game on my jacket sleeve!
I used an Adafruit Flora as the computer that controlled the game, and I used sewable circuitry – particularly conductive thread, sewable LEDs and conductive fabric as the inputs and outputs of my game.
A big focus of this project was that this was my only denim jacket – I wear it a lot. I wanted my computer+game design to be robust against the normal usage conditions of the jacket. I roll it up clip it onto my bag, or I wear it on the nasty subway, or I wear it when it is raining. I wanted the computer to be safe from the dangerous environment, and I also wanted to be able to wear the jacket in all the normal situations that I’d wear it in.
I decided that the computer will be positioned inside one of my jacket pockets. That way
it is not exposed to the external environment, AND,
if it gets loose and falls off, it safely falls into my pocket, and not on the ground.
The computer is still a very delicate item, so despite the pocket safety measure, I wanted the option to remove the computer in a modular fashion. Traditionally, the Flora computer is sewn onto the textile (this would be tough to modularly remove a sewn on item). Instead, I attached the Flora to my jacket with snappable buttons (now its modular, I can unsnap the buttons attaching the item to the fabric).
The way this works is that the LEDs and buttons are sewn onto my fabric with conductive thread. The electricity on these threads is supplied by my computer. so these same threads from the LEDs need to connect to my computer. Instead, the LED threads are attached to the male ends of snappable buttons, which are sewn onto my fabric. The female ends of the buttons are attached to the input/output pins of my Flora computer. When I want to create an electrical connection between the LED thread and my computer, I join the male and female ends of the snappable buttons. The buttons conduct electricity and act as an interface between the computer and the thread sewn into the fabric!
I initially planned to solder the female ends of the buttons onto my computer. The solder would act as a “conductive glue” between the computer and button. This was a hard task, and the force exerted by the button-unsnapping process would always break the solder-connection I had created. I spent a lot of time trying to perfect my soldering process before I gave up. This was the biggest challenge of this project.
I’m most proud of how I solved this problem. Originally, The solder was acting as a “glue”, and a “conductor”. Instead, I used superglue as the glue, and conductive thread as the conductor!
With this method, I circumvent another issue. Some snap buttons can be large, and they run the risk of either touching adjacent buttons or touching adjacent I/O ports. As seen in the above picture, I can glue some buttons far away from their respective I/O port and adjacent button, to ensure there’s no accidental touching of circuitry. I just need to create a longer connection between button and port with the conductive thread.
My learning goals were to 1) work with electronic textiles, and 2) also work on a project design that is entirely my own and iterate that design.
I believe I successfully accomplished both goals. I invested a lot of time into understanding how conductive thread and sewable circuitry works, I looked at many different implementations to understand the best practices, and I practiced my sewing technique and improved it majorly also. I hoped to learn how to properly “think” about a sewing project – what are the challenges, what difficult decisions need to be made, how to problem solve on a sewing project. I did learn those things, and I also unintentionally learned how to fix or undo sewing mistakes!
For my second goal, my whole project was my own conception, I borrowed the concept of making the Flora modular with snappable buttons, but I iterated that design by using superglue and conductive thread instead of solder. My design involved 2 types of circuits, so I made sure to sew those circuits into a woodframe and test that my technique would work correctly. After finishing sewing any thread line or snap button or any electric component, I stopped to ensure that the electric connection was still “correct” and worked. This allowed me to catch mistakes early, fix my technique and not repeat those mistakes.
I’m very happy with project, specifically because of how rewarding the learning process was.
I invested a lot more mental, physical, critical effort in the process of learning, and then I felt smart when I applied my new knowledge.
What really stands out to me upon re-reading past write-ups is that I was very conservative with my projects. I was afraid of failure, so I tried to structure my projects around the simplest techniques that had the least scope for errors. It shows because I rarely ran into road-blocks and was rarely forced to think laterally and problem solve. I would instead try to change my project to fit the outcomes of my practices.
With this final project, the requirement of formulating a challenging proposal within the structures of the two chosen learning goals was very helpful. It made me iterate my technique and process to fit the project instead of vice versa.
I really feel much more confident as a maker now – I understand now that failure isn’t such a big setback, and that working on sub-samples of the problem will allow me to catch my failures earlier and spend lesser time overall. Because of this, I feel comfortable trying new techniques and incorporating creativity into my problem solving.
People often say that your life can turn out completely different than what you plan out of college. You can work on something thats entirely outside your major, and you can be working in a work culture that you didn’t think you’d enjoy. I could not see myself in this position, adapting to my environment and pivoting my life’s direction. Its a little extreme, but I feel differently now.
Working on this project, I’ve shown myself that I can work in a domain outside my expertise (sewing and textile) and adapt and excel. Additionally, I can make a new domain my own by incorporating my expertise in other domains. I didn’t see myself having such flexibility, but now I think my mind has opened to the possibility. I was a little scared about making E-Textile the focus of my project, but I handled it just fine. Now, I wont say “No” based on my prior judgment, because I have the potential to surprise myself. I believe being a “maker” also means not saying “no”. You have to be able to think on your feet and “find a solution” in the making process.
I learnt the E-textile process by working hands-on on a project that was personally meaningful to me. Both factors really accelerated the rate at which I learned e-textile. I cannot think of another circumstance that would have been more conducive to my learning process. I feel so confident in my abilities to sew circuits into fabric right now.
Our last assignment! This project is supposed to be reflective of what we learned about the design process this semester. We had tasks such as: story boarding, paper prototyping, iterative assessment, and more! The only catch for this assignment was that we had to use a medium/tool that we have never used before. In the past we have always been given or had the option to use tools that we have learned in class, so this was all new. At the beginning, we were given a sheet of possible tools to choose from. Upon scanning the sheet for the first time, I saw “raspberry pi” on the list and immediately snapped into wanting to make a video game console. I have seen this done in the past, so I knew it was possible. I just had literally no idea of how to approach making it.
For the storyboard, it was simple. I wanted to make a portable device that could play games, play them well, and be able to have more than one players playing.
Picture 1: Initial Storyboard
Little did I know, this idea was ambitious to the point of being impossible. To start off, the games I wanted to play (gamecube) proved to be fundamentally impossible for the pi to run. Many forum posters say it is due to the pi not having a 64-bit architecture like the gamecube does. This is false because I ended up running N64, “64” for 64-bit architecture, games pretty well. In short, the pi just does not have enough power to run the games making it literally impossible to make a custom game cube out of a raspberry pi. To rectifiy this I went back a generation of game consoles to the Nintendo 64. Emulation for this console would prove sketchy but doable! To continue, I wrote “4 Players!!” completely ignorant to knowing what a “player” actually is. A player is something that is giving input that the console needs to read and execute. This is much more taxing on the cpu than a simple AI that doesn’t have inputs but only executions. So, this project was whittled down to a portable N64 game console that could support up to two players and run at 60 frames.
One of the first steps I had to take was purchasing a raspberry pi. I took about 30 minutes for me to make a decision between the Raspberry pi 2 B and the pi 3 and went with the 2B in the end. The Pi 3 did offer more processing power for 10 bucks more but many said I could emulate the same with a 2b. I took “the same” as the 2b has enough power to run the game flawlessly. I’m glad this was wrong. If the games ran flawlessly I wouldn’t have much to do. Instead, I learned a bunch about computers along the way.
The other sect of research I had to do was how to interface with the pi. I quickly found that there was an OS designed to emulate games on the pi called “retropie.” To interface with the pi, I need to load an operating system (OS) onto a micro-SD card and boot the pi from there. Getting the OS loaded was easy. Put the micro-SD into a SD adapter -> Put the SD adapter into my computer’s SD slot -> Unzip a folder containing the OS called “retropie” -> Reinsert the micro-SD back into the pi and boot. Research did not take as much time as I thought it would take so I started to worry about if what I was doing was enough. Luckily the pi I bought was nowhere near perfect.
The Meat and Potatoes
The meat and potatoes of this project was the optimization of this tiny computer. Many hours were spent within menus tweaking aspects of the pi that would either allot me more power or optimize a process.
Picture 2: My desk during this whole project!
This amalgamation of cables would be my own little raspberry pi lab for the next week and a half. Two monitors, a laptop, 2 keyboard, 2 mice, 2 usb N64 controllers, my pi, and my desktop. Laptop was for loading software/games to the raspberry pi. Desktop was for debugging research. One monitor to interface with the pi. A keyboard to navigate the pi’s command prompts. Finally, the controllers to test game play. This picture was not necessary, but it was amusing to me!
Picture 3: The raspberry pi 2 model B
This is the Pi I used for this project. In the middle of the board you can see a big green block of metal and a smaller grey block of metal to the right of the green block. These are heat sinks. Heat sinks act as a form of cooling without the fan. Heat is taken from the processor (green) and the Graphics Processing Unit(GPU, grey) and sent upward thorough the little fins. These fins proved crucial as they reduced the temperature of the pi running N64 games from 70 degrees C (highly dangerous) to around 58 degrees C (not highly dangerous). Outside to that modification, the rest of the board is run-of-the-mill. 32GB micro-SD (middle left), micro-USB power supply (bottom left) HDMI (bottom), Ethernet port (bottom right) and 4 USB 2.0 ports (top right).
I am going to do a quick run down of each of these screens’ options and how I used them to benefit me or why I didn’t use them.
Raspi config, left
Expand File system: This formats the SD to the raspberry Pi, already done on my computer
Change Password: Security measure, no password was used doubt someone will hack my pi
Boot options: Could choose to boot to this screen or the OS, I did OS
Wait for network at boot: Have to be connected to the internet to use the Pi, this was disabled.
Internationalization Options: Everything was in English so I did not touch this.
Enable Camera: You can connect a camera via ribbon cable to the the pi, cameras are not needed for video games.
Add to Rastrack: Online pi data tracking
Overclock: I had to enable overclocking on my pi. Bumped the processing power from 900Mhz to 1000Mhz. A 7-10 frame difference in testing.
Advanced options: see right
About Raspi-config: A READ ME file about what each of these menu options does.
Advanced options, right
Expand File system: I do not know why they had this twice
Over scan: Naturally games have these ugly black bars around the screen. Before messing with this, about half the screen was black bars. Over scan eliminates these bars making the game easier to see
Memory split: Oddly enough, I did not have to touch this option. I had the games running at 60 fps without touching it.
Audio: One can either play audio through the 3.5 mm jack on the board or through the HDMI. By default, it was through the jack so I changed it to HDMI.
Resolution: For some reason, the resolution was really high out of the box. Old games do not need high res do I bumped it down to 640×480. Doing this would put less stress on the GPU and processor because there is less on screen imaging to process. Also, there is a hertz associated with a resolution. This number of hertz is a hard cap at the amount of frames a game can be outputted to the monitor. There were options for 50hz resolutions but this would hard cap our game play at 50 frames, not ideal. 60 hertz for our desired 60 frame gameplay
GL Driver: For experimental versions of pi. Did not use.
Picture 6&7: Game Emulator Menu (left) picture taken of the emulation (right)
Each game on the pi is given its own emulation menu from which to control aspects of that games emulation. Every game is a tad different so they must be emulated different.
Default Emulator: Always picks the most powerful one which is the worst one.
Select Emulator: Can choose from 7 emulators. The one I picked, “gles2n64”, prioritizes game play over graphics leading to smoother game play but bad in-game menus and the lack of eyes from smash bros characters (right).
Remove emulator: Removes the emulator. I do not understand this option’s purpose.
Default video mode: I did this back in the raspi-config menu. CEA-1 is the 640×480 resolution.
Remove video mode: Removes the video mode. I do not understand this option’s purpose.
Select frame buffer: Having a frame buffer makes it so that input is separated by frames. Once can press four buttons at once and have them all be read or, with a frame buffer, can have the first button pushed be read while the others are not read. They are not read because the frame buffer counter is not up. This can make games seem more fluid. Games already have their own frame buffers so I did not use this option.
Launch: launch the game and play it.
Exit: save the settings and do not play the game.
The final thing I did was turn off something called retroarch.h settings. Retroarch was a controller setup program that made it so that one could have a specific set of controls per each game. Turning this off allotting me more cores towards emulation.
Overclocking to increase processor power
Changing resolution to decrease computing stress and give the ability for 60 frames per second
Fixing over scan to conform the game to the screen.
Audio to HDMI
Finding the right emulator to show the game
Disabling undesired programs (retroarch.h)
Adding heat sinks to my CPU and GPU to decease temperature.
All lead up to a game console that:
Can be played for hours without over heating
Supports two players easily
Can fit in your pocket
Can conform to any TV
Can hold 32 GB worth of N64 games (biggest game I saw was 50mb, so 640 games!)
And most importantly, run at 60 frames per second.
I could go on about how important to me it was that I managed 60 frames. It just produces the best game play bar-none.
The last bit I had to do was make a box! For this box I laser cut a press fit box. I could have 3D printed a case but a pressfit box took less time and looked better.
Picture 8: The pressfit case.
I used an online generator to produce a .svg file of a pressfit box. All I had to do was add holes for the ports. Picture 8 was a little bit too small so I had to reprint, the concept was there tho. The reason I cut holes in the top of the box was to allow for the heat to rise. Don’t want our console to overheat after all the work we had done to it.
Picture 9: Console presentation
The presentation went better than expected! I did not run into any issues testing at home pre-presentation but that doesn’t mean bugs will not creep up! This presentation ran for 90 min and the console maintained quality throughout. I had a couple people that stayed and played for awhile. I defiantly got more praise for it than I thought so needless to say I was proud of myself!
At the start of this project, when I had to establish learning goals. I said that my tech learning goal was to be able to use raspberry pi as a prototyping device in the future. As for what I would be prototyping, I do not know, but I have the know how of manipulating the pi to get a desired state. Somthing I just thought of being to prototype, as I’m writing this, would be a smart speaker. There is a ribbon cable spot for a screen so one does not have to use HDMI. Then there is the 3.5mm jack for audio. The micro-SD for storage and USB for a Bluetooth adapter as well as speakers them selves. One could use all these aspects to run Spotify on a tiny LCD and play music over Bluetooth (wifi if you have the pi 3).
It is baby’s first computer is what it is, low barrier to entry. A good place to start if one would like to tinker with computational architecture. Which leads me to my educational learning goal. I really wanted to learn how a computer works. I’ve built my own desktop before but that was all plug and play. I’ve never had to manipulate anything on the back end. Going in, I thought I would be just turning down the resolution and overclocking. What I ended up doing was min-maxing cores of the processor. Working in command prompts was also new to me so navigating those was troubling. It was almost like a text adventure but instead of giving command you are writing codes to change directories and call certain programs. Next time I will have to work with computers on a more intricate level I will think back to this project to see if what I did could help.
Question 1: Show us what you made for your final project. Include at least two in-process photos and two final photos (or videos!) of your final project. Include a couple sentences about what challenges you faced and what you are most proud of but do not write a full step-by-step report of what you did.
I developed a fun strategy-based board game that can be played by multiple players. The game is turn-based and contains mechanics such as chess-based movement and attacking other players. The board is a rectangular grid. Players move and can attack other players. There are obstacles which players can use to shield themselves from attacks from other players. Power-ups are used to enhance offensive bonuses.
I faced several challenges along the way. One part was what technologies I would use. I downloaded models from Thingiverse and printed them with the resin printer, which turned out to be very detailed. Another was printing out the barriers, as with 3D printing it took forever and I was on a time crunch. I consulted James and he provided suggestions such as laser-cutting pieces and assembling them together, but I ultimately did not apply this idea because my project would require me to do those prints 30+ times, which was not feasible in my opinion.
Another challenge was the overall design of the game mechanics. I consulted my friend Miguel, a board game specialist, and asked him for his input on the game rules I had devised. One major implementation that he designed was the concept of a counter-play, since before, players would have no method to defend themselves against an attack.
In-progress pictures of the materials:
Question 2: What were your learning goals for your final project? Write at least one paragraph per learning goal about what you hoped to learn as you worked on this final project and what you actually learned.
Some questions to help your thinking: What did you learn that surprised you? Did you meet your goal? If you failed to meet your goal, how did you iterate your plan and what did you learn in that process? Are you happy with your final project? Is your final project meaningful to you? Why?
My learning goals for this project were: to use a new technology that I have not used before, and to push my creativity with this project and come up with unique game ideas. This project would essentially build upon the skills I have learned so far in this class, combining multiple areas into one.
I hoped to learn new technologies. I considered using neopixels for a cool effect but due to not having enough time, instead I opted to learn watercolor painting and produce my materials with different technologies, such as resin printing (which produces more detailed prints) and acrylic laser-cutting (which produced a really nice texture).
I also wanted to create a game that was creative and that people enjoyed. This is pretty difficult overall and even though I spent time considering different pros and cons of gameplay and that I like playing my own game, I am unsure if it would appeal to a wider audience. Rules and game play will have to be carefully tuned to ensure that the game makes sense and is playable, and is one that is truly strategy-based.
I think overall I met both of my goals. I like my game and think the outcome turned out decently.
Question 3: After rereading your lab assignment write-ups, what is the most significant thing you have learned over the course of these assignments? This is not a question about tool learning, but rather a question about yourself as a learner.
Some questions to help your thinking: Have you become more comfortable with certain kinds of tasks? Have you surprised yourself with what you enjoyed doing? Do you feel you’ve developed your confidence as a maker and what does that look like?
This class taught me how to pick up new technologies and how to learn them effectively. I think my TA Emilie accomplished this quite well in her instruction of my section. These assignments would include a short lesson and then building a very simple product, and then creating more complicated versions that would be used in the turned-in lab assignment. Initially I was uncomfortable and wasn’t sure if I should stay enrolled in this class because of the implications of having to force myself to be creative, but I turned out to like it, and so I’m glad I stayed because I’m proud of myself and the things I’ve learned and made.
Question(s) 4: Has this course spurred you to think about yourself differently? And/or future goals and interests in life? Do you consider yourself a maker? What does that mean to you now that it didn’t at the beginning of the semester?
Some questions to help your thinking: What does it mean to you to call yourself a maker (or not)? Who do you think should call themselves a maker? Early on you read a quotation from Seymour Papert who suggested the most significant learning is a) hands-on and b) personally meaningful. Does that quotation mean more to you now than it did at the beginning of the semester? What does it mean to you? Did you experience any learning this semester that fit this definition? Did the hands-on nature of the class make your learning more significant? Why and how?
Makerspaces encourage the development of both the technical and the creative aspects of people. It’s a very hands-on and practical area and also open toward people. I think one thing this course has changed in me is that it has helped me want to learn about not just why, but also how things work. I guess this means that I’m a maker.
Notwithstanding, ultimately being a maker is up to how you define it. If you make things, does that make you a maker? There are some specific things that people consider a part of makerspaces but I question that they are requirements to be considered a maker. In my opinion, if you can consider yourself a maker, then you are one.
I think making something hands-on and meaningful is definitely important, and I think I’ve accomplished this during the course of this semester. I think understanding makerspaces develops as you do it more. It’s a constant learning experience for everyone and it doesn’t stop.
Requirements: 2-4 players, game board, barriers, hearts, and power-ups
Each player selects one character.
Each player receives three hearts (lives).
Starting from the youngest player, going clockwise, place a power-up on the board until none.
Starting from the youngest player, going clockwise, place a barrier on the board until none.
During this process, all players should be able to reach each other at all times.
Starting from the youngest player, going clockwise, roll a die until the number 1, 2, 3, or 4 is rolled. Place your character on the spawn point that matches that number.
The youngest player starts first, and turns go clockwise.
The player must move one square, either vertically or horizontally. Diagonal movement is not allowed, and players cannot cross barriers.
If the player walks into a power-up, pick up that power-up. You can only have one.
After moving, the player can then choose to attack a player or a barrier if they are able to, given their power-up.
Unlike chess, you don’t move to the opponent’s square after the attack.
A player can attack other players differently depending on their power-ups (see below).
If the player chooses to attack another player:
The attacker and defender each roll a die.
If the attacker’s roll is higher, the attack is successful.
During any of these steps, if you roll a tie, both reroll.
Else, the attacker rolls a second time. If this roll is higher than the defender’s original roll, the attack is successful.
If the attack is successful, the player returns a heart to the bank, forfeits their power-up at the current spot, and is moved to ANY respawn point of their choosing. Discard the attacker’s power-up.
If the defender will have 0 hearts, they are eliminated from the game.
If the attack is unsuccessful, end the turn.
If the player attacks a barrier instead, then just remove the barrier.
None: Can only attack from any adjacent tile in all directions (like a chess king).
Laser gun (x4, GREEN): Can attack a player in any tile in the same X or Y axis. Does not penetrate barriers.
Sword (x4, RED): Attacks like no power-up, except you can attack barriers (to remove them) as well.
Lucky coin (x2, YELLOW): If this player is attacked at any time, add +1 to the defender’s rolls.
Speedy (x2, ORANGE): This player can move two squares instead of one each turn. Lasts until the player dies.
Teleporter (x2, BLUE): This player can choose to teleport to a respawn point of their choice during any turn, as a replacement for their movement phase.
Power-ups are single-use and most are discarded after they are used, except for the lucky coin and speedy.
Players can only have one power-up at a time, but can be swapped (the other one is discarded).